WATER WARS: Online Course: Groundwater Modeling using MODFLOW 6 and Model Muse — Hatari Labs

WATER WARS

This online course is NOT teaching about Primary Water.  

The Groundwater modeling is the secondary water cycle.

Most important we are NOT running out of water.

Water is a RENEWABLE – to learn the Water Facts go to www.PrimaryWater.org

And also watch the YouTube video “Primary Water Explained”. 

https://www.hatarilabs.com/cu-en/online-course-groundwater-modelling-using-modflow6-and-model-muse

A numerical flow model can be the most efficient and effective tool to carry out these analyzes and obtain reasonable information on the relationships between groundwater components. However, having a modeling tool is not enough, it is necessary to know both the modeling platform and understand the processes it wants to reproduce, and in this particular case, understand the water dynamics of the hydrogeological system.

This course develops the main functions and applications of the latest version of the MODFLOW 6 groundwater modeling code through the ModelMuse interface, both developed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This version includes innovative tools for the construction and simulation of hydrogeological models, mainly highlighting the incorporation of the discretization option for discretized by vertices grids.

Objectives

The development of the course will allow the application of these groundwater modeling tools to analyze regional and local flow, so that participants learn to build these models and analyze the results. In this course the student will learn:

  • ModelMuse environment and tools for modelling.
  • Know the potential of MODFLOW 6 and the ModelMuse environment.
  • Conceptualization criteria, grid design and boundary conditions.
  • Modelling of particle tracking with MODPATH.
  • Calibration and transient simulation of numerical models.
  • Analyze the results obtained in the simulated models.

 

Course content

Session 1: Basic MODFLOW 6

Exercise 1:

  • Three-dimensional steady-state simulation with different constant heads that define the groundwater flow throughout the extension of the model.

Exercise 2

  • Three-dimensional steady-state simulation with 2 different constant heads, and different values of hydraulic conductivities associated with the location of each grid cell.
  • Intersection of objects and overwriting of hydraulic conductivities associated with geometries.

Session 2: Boundary conditions and transient simulations

Exercise 3:

  • Three-dimensional steady-state simulation with confined and unconfined layers with recharge, rivers, and wells applied to the numerical model with different pumping scenarios.

Exercise 4:

  • Three-dimensional transient simulation of 10 periods of 365 days each, with different boundary conditions and different scenarios in which pumping wells are applied trough different layers of the simulated aquifer.

Session 3: DISV Package and quadtree refinements

Exercise 5:

  • Three-dimensional steady-state simulation with a lake with constant-head, a river and wells with quadtree refinement in different levels for each boundary condition and with different pumping rates.

Session 4: Advanced packages

Exercise 6:

  • Three-dimensional transient simulation with advanced packages like multi-aquifer wells (MAW) and stream-flow routing (SFR) that interact between them and a lake with constant head.

Midterm Exam

  • Focused in solve a case adittional of the session 4 developed by the instructor.

Session 5: Particle tracking

Exercise 7:

  • Forward and backward particle tracking simulations applied to general-head boundary conditions and wells in a three-dimensional steady-state simulation with quadtree refinement.

Exercise 8:

  • Forward, backward and transient particle tracking simulation applied to a three-dimensional transient simulation with wells with different pumping rates and a river that interacts with a nearby well.

Session 6: Three-dimensional anisotropy

Exercise 9:

  • Three-dimensional steady-state simulation with wells pumping and injecting water in different boundaries with three-dimensional anisotropy applied in 2 axis that creates whirls

Exercise 10:

  • Three-dimensional steady-state simulation with quadtree refinement and three-dimensional anisotropy distributed in 2 axis of the grid.

Session 7: Geological faults

Exercise 11:

  • Three-dimensional steady-state simulation with general-head boundary conditions with a fractured zone and a core of a fault with high and low hydraulic conductivities respectively.

Exercise 12:

  • Three dimensional steady-state simulation with quadtree refinement, three-dimensional anisotropy and zones of high and low hydraulic conductivity influenced by a fractured zone and a fault respectively

Session 8: Regional model

Exercise 13:

  • Three-dimensional steady-state simulation with a basin that delimits the active zone, recharge, evapotranspiration and rivers placed throughout the extension of the grid.

Exercise 14:

  • Application of head observations and post-processing of results with Python

Final Exam

  • Final exam is similar to midterm except given at the end.

Trainer

Saul Montoya M.Sc. 

Saul Montoya M.Sc. is a Hydrogeologist and Numerical Modeler. Mr. Montoya is a Civil Engineer graduated from the Catholic University in Lima with postgraduate studies in Management and Engineering of Water Resources (WAREM Program) from Stuttgart University – Germany with mention in Groundwater Engineering and Hydroinformatics. Mr Montoya has a strong analytical capacity for the interpretation, conceptualization and modeling of the surface and underground water cycle and their interaction. 

He is in charge of numerical modeling for contaminant transport and remediation systems of contaminated sites. Inside his hydrological and hydrogeological investigations Mr. Montoya has developed a holistic comprehension of the water cycle, understanding and quantifying the main hydrological dynamic process of precipitation, runoff, evaporation and recharge to the groundwater system. 

Over the last 9 years Saul has developed 2 websites for knowledge sharing in water resources: www.gidahatari.com (Spanish) and www.hatarilabs.com (English) that have become relevant due to its applied tutorials on groundwater modeling, spatial analysis and computational fluid mechanics.

Methodology

Here are some details of each methodology:

  • Manuals and files for the exercises will be delivered.
  • The course will be developed by videos on private web platform.
  • There is online support for questions regarding the exercises developed in the course.
  • Digital certificate available at the end of the course.
  • Video of the classes will be available for 2 months.
  • To receive the digital certificate you must submit the exercises after 1 month.

Cost and payment

The cost of the course is $ 180 dollars.

This online course will be given on out elearning platform: elearning.hatarilabs.com . You will need to create an account to payment by Paypal and automatically you will register for the course.

For any other information please write to: saulmontoya@hatarilabs.com

Registry

After payment with Paypal, fill out the following registration form including the information related to your payment. We will send you an e-mail to confirm your registration.

For any other information please write to: saulmontoya@hatarilabs.com 

The coronavirus pandemic might make buildings sick, too

https://phys.org/news/2020-04-coronavirus-pandemic-sick.html

The coronavirus pandemic might make buildings sick, too

by Caitlin R. Proctor, Andrew J. Whelton and William Rhoads, The Conversation

While millions of people are under orders to stay home amid the coronavirus pandemic, water is sitting in the pipes of empty office buildings and gyms, getting old and potentially dangerous.

When water isn’t flowing, organisms and chemicals can build up in the plumbing. It can happen in underused gyms, office buildings, schools, shopping malls and other facilities. These organisms and chemicals can reach unsafe levels when water sits in water pipes for just a few days. But, what happens when water sits for weeks or months?

There are no long-term studies of the risks and only minimal guidance to help building owners prepare their water for use again after a long shutdown.

As researchers involved in building water safety, we study these risks and advise building owners and public officials on actions they can take to reduce the potential for widespread waterborne disease. A new paper highlights these issues and our concerns that the COVID-19 stay-at-home orders may increase the chance of harmful water exposure when people return.

What happens when water gets old?

Just like food that sits in a refrigerator for too long, water that sits in a building’s pipes for too long can make people sick.

Harmful organisms, like the bacteria that cause Legionnaire’s disease, can grow. If not maintained, devices like filters, water tanks, heaters and softeners can become organism incubators.

With certain pipe materials, water can accumulate unsafe levels of lead and copper, which can cause learning disabilities, cardiovascular effects, nausea and diarrhea.

Drinking this water is a problem, but infections can also result from inhaling harmful organisms. This occurs when water splashes and becomes an aerosol, as can happen in showers, hot tubs and pools and when flushing toilets or washing hands. Some of these organisms can cause pneumonia-like diseases, especially in people who have weakened immune systems.

Water inside a building does not have an expiration date: Problems can develop within days at individual faucets, and all buildings with low water use are at risk.

Keep the water flowing

To avoid water issues, “fresh” water must regularly flow to a building’s faucets. Most U.S. water providers add a chemical disinfectant to the water they deliver to kill organisms, but this chemical disappears over time.

Medical facilities, with their vulnerable populations, are required to have a building water safety plan to keep water fresh and prevent growth. Schools, which have long periods of low use during the summer, are advised to keep water fresh to reduce water’s lead levels.

Health agencies in the U.S., Canada, England, Europe and some states have released recommendations in recent weeks, advising that building water be kept fresh during COVID-19 stay-at-home orders. There’s some debate over the best way to do that, but the core message is the same: Do not let water sit in buildings. Flushing accomplishes several goals. Credit: Caitlin Proctor/Purdue University

If water isn’t being used in a building, intentionally flushing the building to replace all the old water with new water can be done at least weekly. It also helps remove sediments that accumulate along pipe walls.

Faucets, water heaters and softeners, appliances such as refrigerators, toilets and other water systems, including cooling towers, all need to have water turnover. Some of these can require specialized attention. Faucet aerators should be removed because they accumulate materials and slow down the flow.

How long flushing takes depends on the building’s piping design, devices and the speed of water exiting the faucets. All buildings are different.

It took more than 80 minutes of flushing to draw fresh water to the farthest faucet of one 10,000-square-foot building. In another building, it took 60 minutes just to get fresh water from the water meter to the basement of a building 30 feet from the street. A single large building may take hours or days to clear.

Easier to avoid contamination than clean it up

For building managers who haven’t been running the water during the pandemic, the water sitting in pipes may already have significant problems. To perform flushing, safety equipment, including masks, currently in short supply, might be needed to protect workers.

A slow “ramp-up” of the economy means buildings will not reach normal water use for some time. These buildings may need flushing again and again.

Shock disinfection, adding a high level of disinfectant chemical to the plumbing to kill organisms living in it, may also be necessary. This is required for new buildings and is sometimes done when water in new buildings sits still for too long.

Inexpensive chemical disinfectant tests can help determine if the water is “fresh.” Testing for harmful organisms is recommended by some organizations. It can take several days and requires expertise to interpret results. Metals testing might be needed, too. Public health departments can provide specific recommendations for all of these actions and communication of risks.

The need for standards and water safety

Water left sitting in the pipes of buildings can present serious health risks.

Standards are lacking and very much needed for restarting plumbing and ensuring continued water safety after the pandemic passes.

Right now, building managers can take immediate action to prevent people from becoming sick when they return.


Explore further

Water quality could change in buildings closed down during COVID-19 pandemic, engineers say


Provided by The Conversation

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.                                             

ALERT – More contamination in OUR drinking water . . .

More contamination in OUR drinking water . . .

ALERT: Neonic pesticides in tap water react with chlorine to create hazardous chemicals that are 300 times more toxic

Researchers warn that conventional methods for treating water can trigger chemical reactions in neonicotinoid contaminants. The resulting metabolites are proven to be far more toxic than the original “neonic” pesticides.

Waste Water: Orange County’s pioneering wastewater recycling system embarks on major expansion – Orange County Register

Waste Water:  Orange County’s pioneering wastewater recycling system embarks on major expansion – Orange County Register  

EXCERPT:

The program runs treated wastewater through an

 

Read more “Waste Water: Orange County’s pioneering wastewater recycling system embarks on major expansion – Orange County Register”

WATER – a DEADLY LIE Being Spread by the CONtrollers

We Are “NOT” Running Out of WATER – Water IS a Renewable – Do Not be Tricked
 
Learn More – Go to PrimaryWater.org  
 
Listen to the You Tube video “Primary Water Explained”
 
Choose LIFE – Choose TRUTH
 
________________________________________
 
 
In India -Chennai’s the latest city to have almost run out of water, and other cities could
follow suit – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) – Media Psyops

Chennai’s the latest city to have almost run out of water, and other cities could follow suit

Posted 

Space to play or pause, M to mute, left and right arrows to seek, up and down arrows for volume.

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Video: Chennai authorities have introduced a token system to stop fighting over water. (ABC News)

Chennai is a city that has withstood the rise and fall of empires, but it now faces a grave existential crisis as it runs dry due to a severe water shortage, leaving millions in the lurch.

This week, taps ran dry as water levels in its four major reservoirs fell to one-hundredth of what they were this time last year, caused by a devastating drought.

The crisis in India’s sixth-largest city — with a population bigger than Melbourne and Sydney combined — has pushed schools, hotels and commercial establishments to close, while hospitals have put off non-essential surgeries.

Millions of people are lining up at water trucks to fill containers of water in a crisis that’s hit urban and rural Indians alike, and usually only half leave with their pots filled.

But the problem isn’t confined to Chennai — in the western state of Maharashtra, some are so desperate for water they are lining up their pots two days before water tankers are due to arrive.

Children as young as 10 were being sent to fetch water a train ride away, hauling back containers of water almost as big as they were.

While India faces its worst long-term water crisis in its history as demand outstrips supply, its story is one that is becoming increasingly common in rapidly urbanising countries around the globe.

Urbanisation and poor planning drive water scarcity

Abroad, climate change — coupled with rapid urbanisation and population growth — have brought issues around water scarcity and security into focus.

Amid this context, attention has been cast on how municipal authorities have mismanaged the responses to these mounting ecological crises.

Cape Town, a city of more than 4.2 million people in South Africa, faced its worst water crisis in history between 2015 and mid-2018.

As dam levels fell to record lows, some at less than 10 per cent, authorities prepared for Day Zero — where taps were to be shut off with citizens restricted to 25 litres per day.

In Northern Africa, the Egyptian capital of Cairo could run out of water because Ethiopia is damming the Nile River, which currently provides the city with 97 per cent of its water supply.

In the United States, damming of the Colorado River — combined with a 19-year drought — has led some officials to determine that some reservoirs fed by the river will never be full again.

The Colorado stretches across the southwest of the country, being a source of water for some of the region’s biggest cities such as Los Angeles, San Diego and Las Vegas.

In Asia, 3.4 billion people could be living in “water stressed areas” by 2050, according to a 2016 Asia Development Bank (ADB) report.

“Water shortage should be treated as a permanent ongoing issue,” said Thuy Trang Dang, an urban development and water specialist at the ADB’s Southeast Asia office.

Diets filled with more water-demanding meat and dairy products and general growth in consumption also mean “the issue will only become more pressing unless dealt with not as a one-time crisis but as a way of life”, she said.

Australia, the world’s driest inhabited continent, not immune

Australia is the world’s driest inhabited continent.

Over centuries, Australia’s environment has absorbed a number of dry spells, but recent pressures are disrupting a traditionally resilient environment.

The Murray-Darling Basin — a vast river system that stretches across South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland — faces severe stress as a result of drought and what a 2019 royal commission said was due to “gross maladministration”.

“Australia has an uncertain climate that looks like it may be becoming drier in the south, where the majority of the population live,” says Ian Wright of the University of Western Sydney.

Experts have said that Cape Town-style crisis could theoretically play out in Perth, which shares the problem of a drying climate.

The construction of two large desalination plants, however, will likely mean that the West Australian capital is better prepared for climate change than its South African counterpart.

Melbourne, which previously only had a year’s supply of water at the height of the Millennium Drought, also has a desalination plant.

The plant, combined with a pipeline fed from the Goulburn River in Victoria’s north, now have the potential to supply over half of the city’s water.

But according to a report from Melbourne Water in 2017, projections show that it is possible the city’s demand for water could exceed the capacity of its existing sources of water by 2028.

Melbourne could be facing shortfalls of more than 450GL (almost the entire volume of Sydney Harbour) per year by 2065, if water resources weren’t managed well, it said.

Chennai tells the story of a changing world

Part of the reason for Chennai’s current predicament is due to its groundwater depletion, a situation that government think-tank Niti Aayog warned about last year.

It said it was one of 21 cities that it thought could run out of ground water by 2020.

India uses more ground water than any other country, a problem successive governments have failed to tackle, said environmental campaigner Himanshu Thakkar.

“We use more groundwater than what China and the United States collectively use,” Mr Thakkar said.

“Countries like the US identify and protect their groundwater recharge zones. What have we done?”

But Chennai’s groundwater depletion isn’t the sole reason for its current crisis, as drier climatic conditions have exacerbated water scarcity.

Drought followed a 62 per cent shortfall in monsoon rains last year compared to 2017, according to government officials.

Meteorologists said monsoon rains usually cover two-thirds of the country by mid-June. However, they currently have reached less than half that area.

But the monsoon’s progress is expected to pick up in the next 10 days.

Poor rainfall has ravaged crops, dried up reservoirs and forced people to migrate from their villages.

In Maharashtra, many have gone to work farming sugar cane — a thirsty crop that devours two-thirds of its irrigation water, exacerbating the problem.

Meanwhile, in northern and eastern parts of India, temperatures soared to 48 degrees Celsius.

In one eastern state, Bihar, at least 90 people have died of heat stroke this month alone.

The state of Tamil Nadu, where Chennai is located, has asked other states across the country for spare water until monsoon rains fall.

ABC/Wires

Topics: droughtenvironmentwaterwater-managementclimate-changewater-supplyindiaasiasouth-africanswaustraliaunited-states

 

Effect of Climate Change on Water Supplies

Effect of Climate Change on Water Supplies

Climate Change is projected to reduce water supplies mostly in the southwestern, central and southeastern regions of the United States. Today 10 percent of counties are at high or extreme risk of water shortages, and in 2050 that proportion of at-risk counties will grow to 32 percent. Projections assume an increase in greenhouse gas emissions through 2050 and a slow decline after.