Technological And Social Innovation: A Unifying New Paradigm For Global Health
This paper highlights the growing capacity for innovation in some developing countries. To maximize the potential of this phenomenon for global health, countries and donors need to link two disparate schools of thought: (1) a search for technological solutions exemplified by global public-private product development partnerships, and (2) a focus on systemic solutions exemplified by health policy and systems research. A strong capacity for both technological and social innovation in developing countries represents the only truly sustainable means of improving the effectiveness of health systems. Local public-private research and development partnerships, implementation research, and individual leadership are needed to achieve this goal.
I n colloquial use, the term ” innovation ” is often seen as synonymous with “invention.” To the global health community, “innovation” may carry baggage associated with patents and the high cost of medicines. However, the definition used by economists is far broader than invention and is highly relevant to considerations of access: It encompasses the entire process—from idea to implementation—for new products, services, processes, practices, and policies. 1
Read more “The world’s first meningitis B vaccine was developed by Cuba”
Coping with water crisis in Cuba
Over the past ten years, Cuba’s economic decline has led to a slow but steady deterioration of water supplies and sanitation services — and a resulting increase in water-borne disease. When water shortages in parts of Cuba reached crisis proportions last year, two communities solved the problem by taking matters in their own hands — and using slow sand filters as home water-treatment systems.
In Santiago de Cuba, on the eastern part of the island, water shortages made headlines in August of last year. People in some areas of the city, including Veguita de Galo, were doing without water for up to 20 days at a stretch. In other areas, such as La Torre, service was frequently out for four and five days at a time. When water did flow through the city’s mains, it was often on for just two or three hours. To cope with erratic supply, people began storing water, for longer and longer periods, increasing the risk of contamination. Moreover, some residents of Veguita de Galo turned to a private well for water that was turbid, salty and unsafe for drinking.
Even before this most recent crisis the situation was intolerable. A survey revealed that 16 percent of households in Veguita de Galo did not have access to the water-distribution network. Even those that did had to treat their water before it was safe to drink. The region’s facility for producing the chlorine used to treat the municipal water supply had fallen victim to the combined economic shock of the American trade blockade and the fall of the Soviet bloc. A 1999 survey showed that water quality in 49 of the 50 water samples taken in Veguita de Galo was substandard. Cuba’s worsening economic situation also crippled the city`s three wastewater-treatment plants, triggering an increase in water-borne parasitic and infectious disease.
HAVANA, Sep 15 2018 (IPS) – If you enjoy a good daily shower and water comes out every time you turn on the taps in your home, you should feel privileged. There are places in the world where this vital resource for life is becoming scarcer by the day and the forecasts for the future are grim.
A study by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which covers the period 2003-2013, shows that the world’s largest underground aquifers are being depleted at an alarming rate as a result of more water being withdrawn than can be replenished.
“The situation is quite critical,” NASA scientist Jay Famiglietti has said, when discussing the subject in specialised publications in the U.S. In the opinion of this expert the problems with groundwater are aggravated by global warming due to the phenomenon of climate change.
By Preston James, Ph.D
|Castro was originally CIA. He was secretly “managed” by the Jesuits and the Vatican which prevented the CIA and the USG from assassinating him or displacing him or invading Cuba. He was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and used to come to NYC to attend meetings. This was never publicized. The Ruling Cabal made sure Castro was pre-informed of all upcoming assassination attempts.
Marital Lorenz of CIA OP40 (Frank Sturgiss aka Fiorini was her handler–he was one of the shooters on the grassy know in Dealey Plaza)). She was Castro’s girlfriend and had a son with him. She is still alive living in NYC, a friend of mine knows her well and saved her life when Sturgiss went to murder her to prevent her from testifying at the HSCA (Sam Giancana was murdered by his driver in his basement kitchen while making a salad, a CIA plant to keep him from testifying too – this man in now in a witness protection plan in XX).
Castro allowed CIA drug dealers and money launderer and ex-mossad to retire in Cuba if they paid him off. He also allowed CIA drug shipments to pass through Cuba for payments. Castro jailed and murdered thousands of dissidents. Before the bay of pigs he was warned by Jesuit agents in the CIA of the coming invasion, where and how so he could be prepared and JFK was tricked into calling off US air support because he was told by McGeorge Bundy that it would immediately start WW3 with the Russians who had cracked the attack plans.
The Pentagon, the Defense contractors and the JCS loved having Castro as their bad boy 90 miles from the USA. This provided motivation for Congress to approve big budgets and to deploy CIA and mercenaries and death squads trained at the International Police Academy and School of the Americas to train death squads to rape, and murder dissidents on behalf of their south American fascist dictators, appointed on behalf of the large corporations to aid in their asset stripping of South America.
The CIA, Cuba and Operation Peter Pan
On November 19, 2011 NPR broadcast “Children Of Cuba Remember: Their Flight To America.” Reporter Greg Allen claimed the 1960-62 journey from Cuba to the United States of 14,000 plus Cuban children “was made possible because of a deal a priest in the Miami diocese [Father Bryan Walsh] … worked out with the US State Department. The agreement allowed him to sign visa waivers for children 16 or under.” Allen then interviewed several right-of-center Cuban Americans to offer “objective” perspective on the facts surrounding Operation Peter Pan.
CLIMATE CHANGE IS WEATHER CONTROL . . .Geoengineering is the deliberate large-scale manipulation of the Earth’s Climate . .
With a population of 36 million, the Caribbean region is home to a diverse array of languages and cultures, to islands large and small, to major coastal cities and small mountain villages. But for all its diversity, its countries and territories share an important trait – exposure to a yearly hurricane season that can, at times, have devastating impacts.
On its deadly run through the Caribbean last September, Hurricane Irma lashed northern Cuba, inundating coastal settlements and scouring away vegetation. The powerful storm dealt Havana only a glancing blow; even so, 10-meter waves pummeled El Malecón, the city’s seaside promenade, and ravaged stately but decrepit buildings in the capital’s historic district. “There was great destruction,” says Dalia Salabarría Fernández, a marine biologist here at the National Center for Protected Areas (CNAP).
As the flood waters receded, she says, “Cuba learned a very important lesson.” With thousands of kilometers of low-lying coast and a location right in the path of Caribbean hurricanes, which many believe are intensifying because of climate change, the island nation must act fast to gird against future disasters.
Read more “Cuba embarks on a 100-year plan to protect itself from climate change | Science | AAAS”