WARNING: U.S. Global Climate Change Research Report – to Destroy AMERICA

https://science2017.globalchange.gov/downloads/CSSR_Executive_Summary.pdf

EXCERPT:

Highlights of the U.S. Global Change Research Program
Climate Science Special Report
The climate of the United States is strongly connected to the changing global climate. The statements
below highlight past, current, and projected climate changes for the United States and the globe.
Global annually averaged surface air temperature has increased by about 1.8°F (1.0°C) over the last 115
years (1901–2016). This period is now the warmest in the history of modern civilization. The last few
years have also seen record-breaking, climate-related weather extremes, and the last three years have
been the warmest years on record for the globe. These trends are expected to continue over climate
timescales.
This assessment concludes, based on extensive evidence, that it is extremely likely that human activities,
especially emissions of greenhouse gases, are the dominant cause of the observed warming
since the mid-20th century. For the warming over the last century, there is no convincing alternative
explanation supported by the extent of the observational evidence.
In addition to warming, many other aspects of global climate are changing, primarily in response to human
activities. Thousands of studies conducted by researchers around the world have documented
changes in surface, atmospheric, and oceanic temperatures; melting glaciers; diminishing
snow cover; shrinking sea ice; rising sea levels; ocean acidification; and increasing atmospheric
water vapor.
For example, global average sea level has risen by about 7–8 inches since 1900, with almost half
(about 3 inches) of that rise occurring since 1993. Human-caused climate change has made a substantial
contribution to this rise since 1900, contributing to a rate of rise that is greater than during any
preceding century in at least 2,800 years. Global sea level rise has already affected the United States;
the incidence of daily tidal flooding is accelerating in more than 25 Atlantic and Gulf Coast cities.
Global average sea levels are expected to continue to rise—by at least several inches in the next
15 years and by 1–4 feet by 2100. A rise of as much as 8 feet by 2100 cannot be ruled out. Sea level
rise will be higher than the global average on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States.
Changes in the characteristics of extreme events are particularly important for human safety, infrastructure,
agriculture, water quality and quantity, and natural ecosystems. Heavy rainfall is increasing in
intensity and frequency across the United States and globally and is expected to continue to increase.
The largest observed changes in the United States have occurred in the Northeast.

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The Environmental Modification Convention (ENMOD) Weather Warfare Ban

https://weathermodificationhistory.com/environmental-modification-convention-enmod-weather-warfare-ban/

The Environmental Modification Convention (ENMOD) Weather Warfare Ban

Parties to the Environmental Modification Convention undertake not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to any other State Party.

In July 1972 the U.S. Government renounced the use of climate modification techniques for hostile purposes, even if their development were proved to be feasible in the future. On December 10, 1976 the General Assembly adopted a resolution by a vote of 96 to 8, with 30 abstentions, which referred the Convention to all member nations. The Senate gave its advice and consent to ratification on November 28, 1979, by a vote of 98-0. The President ratified the Convention December 13, 1979. The Convention entered into force for the United States on January 17, 1980, when the U.S. instrument of ratification was deposited in New York. – Federation of American Scientists

Read more “The Environmental Modification Convention (ENMOD) Weather Warfare Ban”

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Operation Popeye, Motorpool, Intermediary, Compatriot: Weather Warfare Over Vietnam

https://weathermodificationhistory.com/operation-popeye-motorpool-intermediary-compatriot-weather-warfare-vietnam/

Operation Popeye, Motorpool, Intermediary, Compatriot: Weather Warfare Over Vietnam

The chemical weather modification program was conducted from Thailand over Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam and allegedly sponsored by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and CIA without the authorization of then Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird who had categorically denied to Congress that a program for modification of the weather for use as a tactical weapon even existed.

Goals:

  • Softening road surfaces
  • Causing landslides along roadways
  • Washing out river crossings
  • Maintain saturated soil conditions beyond the normal time span.

Operation Popeye first came to public light in March 1971, when reporter Jack Anderson published a story based on a secret 1967 memo from the Joint Chiefs of Staff to President Johnson. The memo read: “Laos operations – Continue as at present plus Pop Eye to reduce the trafficability [sic] along infiltration routes & Authorization requested to implement operational phase of weather modification process previously successful tested and evaluated in some area”.(US Senate, Subcommittee on Oceans and International Environment; 26 July 1972; p. 5).

Mr DOOLIN: I speak in a personal capacity and not in my official capacity, Mr. Chairman. I have been in this job for 5 years, and I didn’t have this clearance even though Southeast Asia is in my area of responsibility in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. The first I learned of it was, as the result of a Jack Anderson column, and I made inquiries at the time – simply for my own edification… [US Senate, Subcommittee on Oceans and International Environment; 20 March 1972; p. 111]

Few aviation writers and historians seem to be aware that there were three WC-130As. These three were originally trash-haulers, borrowed from TAC in late 1966 for use in Operation Popeye, the rain-making mission in Southeast Asia, set to begin the following year. The intent of the mission was to create enough year-round rain to keep the Ho Chi Minh trails impassable with mud. Tests were conducted over Laos in 1966, and the operational missions began in March of 1967 from Udorn RTAFB, Thailand. They were flown by crews of the 54th WRS, rotated on a regular basis from Guam. In addition, 54th crews were sometimes called upon to conduct synoptic weather reconnaissance from Udorn over various areas of Southeast Asia, out to and including the Bay of Bengal.

The A-models were modified for weather reconnaissance, probably at WRAMA, with the AN/AMR-1 system. They were not configured for atmospheric sampling. Two were kept at Udorn, with the third rotating to and from Guam for maintenance, repair, and crew changes, from June 1967 through late 1970. When the third one was not enroute to/from Thailand, it was used for normal weather reconnaissance activities from Guam. In late 1970 the A’s were replaced with three 1958 B-models, and the rain-making mission continued through mid-1972 with whichever B- or E-models were available from the 54th. After re-conversion to transport, the A’s were transferred to Air Force Reserve units. During their brief stint as rain-makers, they flew a total of 1435 combat sorties, and it is reported that at least one of them received battle damage. All three A-models wore the standard Southeast Asia camouflage colors and markings, but with no unit designations of any kind. In 1973, 56-0519 was given or loaned to the South Vietnamese Air Force, and it became one of the spoils of war on April 30, 1975. The last reliable sighting was in April of 1999, which reported her corroded and derelict at Tan Son Nhut Airport, Ho Chi Minh City.

US Congress, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, Subcommittee on Oceans and International Environment, Hearing: Prohibiting Military Weather Modification, Washington, DC: US Govt. Printing Office, 26-27 July 1972, 162 pages.

US Congress, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, Report: Prohibiting Environmental Modification as a Weapon of War, Report no. 93-270. Washington, DC: OS Govt. Printing Office, 27 June 1973, 7 pages.

US Congress, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, Subcommittee on Oceans and International Environment, Hearing: Weather Modification, Washington, DC: US Govt Printing Office, 1974, 123 pages.

US Congress, House, Committee on Foreign Affairs, Hearing: Weather Modification as a Weapon of War, Washington, DC: US Govt. Printing Office, 24 September 1974, 39 pages.

US Congress, House, Committee on International Relations, Subcommittee on International Organization, Hearing: Prohibition of Weather Modification as a Weapon of War, Washington, DC: OS Govt. Prlnting Offlce, 29 July 1975, 51 pages

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National Weather Modification Policy Act of 1976

https://weathermodificationhistory.com/national-weather-modification-policy-act-of-1976/

National Weather Modification Policy Act of 1976

S. 3383 (94th): National Weather Modification Policy Act

To authorize and direct the Secretary of Commerce to develop a national policy on weather modification, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled That this Act may be cited as the “National Weather Modification Policy Act of 1976”.

SEC. 2. DECLARATION OF POLICY.

  • (a) FINDINGS.—The Congress finds and declares the following:
    • (1) Weather-related disasters and hazards, including drought, hurricanes, tornadoes, hail, lightning, fog, floods, and frost, result in substantial human suffering and loss of life, billions of dollars of annual economic losses to owners of crops and other property, and substantial financial loss to the United States Treasury;
    • (2) Weather modification technology has significant potential for preventing, diverting, moderating, or ameliorating the adverse effects of such disasters and hazards and enhancing crop production and the availability of water;
    • (3) The interstate nature of climatic and related phenomena, the severe economic hardships experienced as the result of occasional drought and other adverse meteorological conditions, and the existing role and responsibilities of the Federal Government with respect to disaster relief, require appropriate Federal action to prevent or alleviate such disasters and hazards; and
    • (4) Weather modification programs may have long-range and unexpected effects on existing climatic patterns which are not confined by national boundaries.
  • (b) PURPOSE. — It is therefore declared to be the purpose of the Congress in this Act to develop a comprehensive and coordinated national weather modification policy and a national program of weather modification research and development —
    • (1) to determine the means by which deliberate weather modification can be used at the present time to decrease the adverse impact of weather on agriculture, economic growth, and the general public welfare, and to determine the potential for weather modification;
    • (2) to conduct research into those scientific areas considered most likely to lead to practical techniques for drought prevention or alleviation and other forms of deliberate weather modification;
    • (3) to develop practical methods and devices for weather modification;
    • (4) to make weather modification research findings available to interested parties;
    • (5) to assess the economic, social, environmental, and legal impact of an operational weather modification program;
    • (6) to develop both national and international mechanisms designed to minimize conflicts which may arise with respect to the peaceful uses of weather modification; and
    • (7) to integrate the results of existing experience and studies in weather modiification activities into model codes and agreements for regulation of domestic and international weather modification activities.
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Weather Modification History

https://weathermodificationhistory.com/

“Those who forget the past are doomed to repeat it.”

Welcome to Weather Modification History (WMH), the world’s most comprehensive weather control archive with hundreds of verified historical facts, images, and videos. WMH’s compelling evidence is easy to browse, exceedingly accurate, and encyclopedic in scope. This website was crafted by dedicated individuals to help you discern fact from fiction with meticulously organized research that offers the activist community a credible compendium.

Weather Modification History was created to inform the public of the extensive history of weather modification experiments. Our goal is to increase public awareness and debate about the moral and legal implications of today’s multi-billion dollar weather control industry and the coming global governance of sunlight-blocking geoengineering schemes. This website will empower you to take action and raise awareness of the little known but lengthy history of weather modification and the men who dare attempt it.

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WARNING: Weather Weapons WARFARE: U.S. Climate Report Warns of Damaged Environment and Shrinking Economy – The New York Times

EXCERPT:

WASHINGTON — A major scientific report issued by 13 federal agencies on Friday presents the starkest warnings to date of the consequences of climate change for the United States, predicting that if significant steps are not taken to rein in global warming, the damage will knock as much as 10 percent off the size of the American economy by century’s end.

The report, which was mandated by Congress and made public by the White House, is notable not only for the precision of its calculations and bluntness of its conclusions, but also because its findings are directly at odds with President Trump’s agenda of environmental deregulation, which he asserts will spur economic growth.

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MAYORS THAT LIE – WORLDWIDE: Climate and Energy Global Covenant of Mayors – October 2018 Newsletter

“The battle against climate change cannot be won without cities, but cities cannot do it alone.”
Op-ed by Mauricio Rodas, GCoM Board Member and Mayor of Quito, Ecuador

Reports have shown that countries’ current commitments are not sufficient enough to meet the Paris Agreement goals of keeping global warming to 2°C above pre-industrial levels.

Now, the 1.5°C report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has gone a step further, illustrating the devastating consequences for our world if we allow global warming to reach 2°C.

And this is especially true for urban populations, which remain highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, from rising seas in coastal cities to devastating droughts in landlocked towns.
The good news is that there is a path to 1.5°C — but if we want to makedrastic transitions in sectors that greatly impact emissions, such asbuildings, transportation and waste, cities are where those changes will be realized.

Recognizing the important role of local governments in addressing today’s most pressing global challenges, including climate change, cities in Group of Twenty (G20) member states, hosted the U20 Mayors Summit in Buenos Aires in October. During the summit, I had the opportunity to participate in a panel discussion about how tolocalize the Paris Agreement and the role of multi-level collaboration in improving investments that support local climate ambition.

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CUBA and the FRAUD of Climate Change: Between Drought and Floods, Cuba Seeks to Improve Water Management – Cuba | ReliefWeb

https://reliefweb.int/report/cuba/between-drought-and-floods-cuba-seeks-improve-water-management

EXCERPT:

HAVANA, Sep 15 2018 (IPS) – If you enjoy a good daily shower and water comes out every time you turn on the taps in your home, you should feel privileged. There are places in the world where this vital resource for life is becoming scarcer by the day and the forecasts for the future are grim.

A study by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which covers the period 2003-2013, shows that the world’s largest underground aquifers are being depleted at an alarming rate as a result of more water being withdrawn than can be replenished.

“The situation is quite critical,” NASA scientist Jay Famiglietti has said, when discussing the subject in specialised publications in the U.S. In the opinion of this expert the problems with groundwater are aggravated by global warming due to the phenomenon of climate change.

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Quotes – Weather Warfare

http://campaign.r20.constantcontact.com/render?ca=47653639-612d-411b-9a7f-63e5c405ba8a&preview=true&m=1111839869613&id=preview

Quotes – Weather Warfare


Quotes

In April 1997, Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen stated in a United States Department of Defense news briefing that: (Source: Department of Defense News Briefing: Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen)

“Others are engaging even in an eco-type of terrorism whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves.”

“The Importance of Understanding Clouds” (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). The document explains that clouds regulate the planets average temperature and help to spread the suns energy evenly over the earths surface. The article also quotes:

Even small changes in the abundance or location of clouds could change the climate more than the anticipated changes caused by greenhouse gases, human-produced aerosols, or other factors associated with global change.

Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques – United Nations Treaty (Signed in Geneva May 18, 1977)

The treaty created a list of phenomena that could result from the use of environmental modification techniques (this list is sourced from the United Nations Treaty above):

“earthquakes and tsunamis; an upset in the ecological balance of a region; changes in weather patterns (clouds, precipitation, cyclones and tornadic storms); changes in climate patterns; changes in ozone currents; changes in the state of the ozone layer and changes in the state of the ionosphere.”

Marc Filterman, a former French military officer, outlines several types of “unconventional weapons” using radio frequencies. He refers to “weather war,” indicating that the U.S. and the Soviet Union had already:

“mastered the know-how needed to unleash sudden climate changes (hurricanes, drought) in the early 1980s.”(3) These technologies make it “possible to trigger atmospheric disturbances by using Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) radar [waves].”

Sourced: (Marc Filterman, Intelligence Newsletter, (December 16, 1999) (http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/CHO201A.html)

“Malaysia to Battle Smog With Cyclones”, by Chen May Yee, Staff Reporter of the Wall Street Journal, The Wall Street Journal, Thursday, November 13, 1997, page A19.

“KULA LUMPUR — Malaysia’s war on smog is about to get a new twist. The government wants to create man-made cyclones to scrub away the haze that has plagued Malaysia since July. ‘We will use special technology to create an artificial cyclone to clean the air’, said Datuk Law Hieng Ding, minister for science, technology and the environment. The plan calls for the use of new Russian technology to create cyclones — the giant storms also known as typhoons and hurricanes — to cause torrential rains, washing the smoke out of the air. The Malaysian cabinet and the finance minister have approved the plan, Datuk Law said. A Malaysian company, BioCure Sdn. Bhd., will sign a memorandum of understanding soon with a government-owned Russian party to produce the cyclone. “Datuk Law declined to disclose the size of the cyclone to be generated, or the mechanism. ‘The details I don’t have’, he said. He did say, though, that the cyclone generated would be ‘quite strong’. Datuk Law also declined to disclose the price of creating the cyclone.”

Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather in 2025 – (Research paper presented to the United States Air Force).

“Weather modification offers the war fighter a wide range of possible options to defeat or coerce an adversary… Weather modification will become a part of domestic and international security and could be done unilaterally… It could have offensive and defensive applications and even be used for deterrence purposes. The ability to generate precipitation, fog and storms on earth or to modify space weather… and the production of artificial weather all are a part of an integrated set of military technologies.”

Also in chapter 2, “In 1957, the president’s advisory committee on weather control explicitly recognized the military potential of weather-modification, warning in their report that it could become a more important weapon than the atom bomb.”

Beware the US Military’s experiments with Climatic Warfare – Michel Chossudovsky (Professor of Economics at the University of Ottawa and editor at the Centre for Research on Globalization)

“‘Climatic warfare’ potentially threatens the future of humanity, but has casually been excluded from the reports for which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) received the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize.”

John von Neumann – Mathematician (1903-1957).

”Intervention in atmospheric and climatic matters . . . will unfold on a scale difficult to imagine at present. . . . this will merge each nation’s affairs with those of every other, more thoroughly than the threat of a nuclear or any other war would have done.”

United States and Other World Powers Should Outlaw Tampering With Weather for Use as War Weapon“, Editorial by Senator Claiborne Pell, D-Rhode Island, The Providence Journal Bulletin, 1975.http://www.cuttingedge.org/News/n1197.cfm

“The U.S. and other world powers should sign a treaty to outlaw the tampering with weather as an instrument of war…. We need a treaty now to prevent such actions — before the military leaders of the world start directing storms, manipulating climates, and inducing earthquakes against their enemies… It may seem a great leap of imagination to … such science-fiction ideas as unleashing earthquakes, melting the polar ice cap, changing the course of warm ocean currents, or modifying the weather of an adversary’s farm belt. But, in military technology, today’s Science fiction is tomorrow’s strategic reality. Apart from the sheer horror of the prospect of unbridled environmental warfare, there is, I believe, another compelling reason to ban such action. We know, or should know, by now, that no nation can maintain for long a monopoly on new warfare technology. If we can develop weather warfare techniques, so can and will other major powers. Experience has taught us that the weapons that make us feel secure today will make us feel very insecure, indeed, when our adversaries possess the same capabilities. Now is the time to act — so we never have to worry about countries directing storms at each other.”

Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques, Geneva: 18 May 1977, Entered into force: 5 October 1978. See full text of Convention in Annex.

“Guided by the interest of consolidating peace, … and of saving mankind from the danger of using new means of warfare, (…)Recognizing that military … use of such [environmental modification techniques] could have effects extremely harmful to human welfare, Desiring to prohibit effectively military … use of environmental modification techniques in order to eliminate the dangers to mankind. … and affirming their willingness to work towards the achievement of this objective, (…) Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to engage in military … use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to any other State Party.”

Beware the US Military’s experiments with Climatic Warfare – Michel Chossudovsky (Professor of Economics at the University of Ottawa and editor at the Centre for Research on Globalization).

“Weather manipulation is the pre-emptive weapon par excellence. It can be directed against enemy countries or ‘friendly nations’ without their knowledge, used to destabilize economies, ecosystems and agriculture. It can also trigger havoc in financial and commodity markets. The disruption in agriculture creates a greater dependency on food aid and imported grain staples from the US and other Western countries.”

The Ultimate Weapon of Mass Destruction: “Owning the Weather” for Military Use – Michel Chossudovsky (Professor of Economics at the University of Ottawa and editor at the Centre for Research on Globalization).

“Environmental warfare is defined as the intentional modification or manipulation of the natural ecology, such as climate and weather, earth systems such as the ionosphere, magnetosphere, tectonic plate system, and/or the triggering of seismic events (earthquakes) to cause intentional physical, economic, and psycho-social, and physical destruction to an intended target geophysical or population location, as part of strategic or tactical war.” – Eco News

Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski  – United States National Security Advisor to President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1981.

“No matter how deeply disturbing the thought of using the environment to manipulate behavior for national advantages to some, the technology permitting such use will very probably be developed within the next few decades.”

John F. Kennedy – 35th President of the United States. Address at the Anniversary Convocation of the National Academy of Sciences. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=9488#axzz2hoTn1hn4

“As science investigates the natural environment, it also modifies it, and that modification may have incalculable consequences for evil as well as for good.”

Also stated, “governments and scientists must work together to make sure there are no destructive effects from such large scale experiments such as weather control.”

“Science has the power for the first time in history to undertake experiments with premeditation which can irreversibly alter our biological and physical environment on a global scale”.

Senator Claiborne Pell – United States Senator for Rhode Island (1961 to 1997).

“Rainmaking as a weapon of war can only lead to the development of vastly more dangerous environmental techniques whose consequences may be unknown and may cause irreparable damage to our global environment. This is why the United States must move quickly to ban all environmental or geophysical modification techniques from the arsenals of war.”

Gilbert Gude – United States Congressman from Maryland Gilbert Gude testified the following before the Senate in 1972.

“We must also consider that the use of weather modification is potentially indiscriminate. Unlike other weapons, the winds and seas are not so direct-able that we can discriminate between one target and another. By their nature, they are area-wide weapons. We cannot flood only military targets or cause droughts in areas producing only military rations. The technology will be used against people regardless of their uniform or occupation. Weather modification will inevitably strike civilians harder than nearby military objectives.”

Also, “The issues of command and control, and the discrimination highlight another disturbing characteristic of weather modification, the difficulty of detection. Unlike other weapons, it may be possible to initiate military weather modification projects without being detected. In other words, the military results may not be visibly tied to the initiating party. This raises the possibility of clandestine use of geophysical warfare…”

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BREAKING: Disclosure at LAST – Controversial spraying method aims to curb global warming – CBS News

BREAKING: Disclosure at LAST – Controversial spraying method aims to curb global warming – CBS News

http://campaign.r20.constantcontact.com/render?ca=71fa882b-6a2d-47f3-b145-ab22817b5dc9&preview=true&m=1111839869613&id=preview

BREAKING: Disclosure at LAST – 
Controversial spraying method 
aims to curb global warming 
– CBS News
INSIDER COMMENT: (This is a developing story)

This disclosure is in the wake of intentional worldwide weather attacks and is a cover-up for intensified warcrimes called Climate Change. Climate Change IS Climate Control.

We have known that geoengineering IS the deliberate large–scale manipulation of the Earth’s climate! These facts can no longer be hidden and can no longer be denied.

We have known for decades that governments and militaries have waged wars upon the global populations profiting from the on going weaponized weather attacks and profiting from all the death and destruction of the ecosystems.

We have known, and NOW we are finally being told that climate crimes WILL be committed – for our safety – to curb global warming!

Controversial spraying method aims to curb global warming

NEW YORK – A fleet of 100 planes making 4,000 worldwide missions per year could help save the world from climate change. Also, it may be relatively cheap. That’s the conclusion of a new peer-reviewed study in Environmental Research Letters.
It’s the stuff of science fiction. Planes spraying tiny sulphate particulates into the lower stratosphere, around 60,000 feet up. The idea is to help shield the Earth from just enough sunlight to help keep temperatures low.
The researchers examined how practical and costly a hypothetical solar geoengineering project would be beginning 15 years from now. The aim would be to half the temperature increase caused by heat-trapping greenhouse gases.
This method would mimic what large volcanoes do. In 1991, Mount Pinatubo erupted in the Philippines. It was the second largest eruption of the 20th century, according to the United States Geological Survey (USGS).
mount-pinatubo-philippines-volcanic-eruption.jpg
The second-largest volcanic eruption of this century, and by far the largest eruption to affect a densely populated area, occurred at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines on June 15, 1991.
USGS
In total, the eruption injected 20 million tons of sulfur dioxide aerosols into the stratosphere. USGS said the Earth’s lower atmosphere temperature dropped by approximately 1-degree Fahrenheit. The effect only lasted a couple of years because the sulfates eventually fell to Earth.
Although controversial, some think that trying to mimic the impacts of a volcano eruption is a viable way to control global warming. This proposed type of climate geoengineering is called stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI). Theoretically if done at scale – and sustained – the impact can be large. The 1-degree temperature drop which accompanied Mount Pinatubo’s eruption is equal to about half of the human-caused warming Earth has experienced since the Industrial Revolution began.
geoengineering-methods-climate-central.png
In this handout photo from Climate Central, they say scientists are looking at a variety of technologies –  from snatching carbon dioxide out of the air like trees do, to launching giant mirrors into space – to artificially slow global warming.
 HANDOUT VIA CLIMATE CENTRAL
Dr. Gernot Wagner from Harvard University is an author of the paper. He said their study shows this type of geoengineering “… would be technically possible strictly from an engineering perspective. It would also be remarkably inexpensive, at an average of around $2 to 2.5 billion per year over the first 15 years.”
But to reach that point, the study said an entirely new aircraft needs to be developed. Partly because missions would need to be conducted at nearly double the cruising altitude of commercial airplanes. The study’s co-authorWake Smithexplained, “No existing aircraft has the combination of altitude and payload capabilities required.”
So, the team investigated what it would cost to develop an aircraft they dub the SAI Lofter (SAIL). They say its fuselage would have a stubby design and the wing area – as well as the thrust – would need to be twice as large. In total, the team estimates the development cost for the airframe to be $2 billion and $350 million to modify existing engines.
In their hypothetical plan, the fleet would start with eight planes in the first year and rise to just under 100 within 15 years. In year one, there would be 4,000 missions, increasing to just over 60,000 per year by year 15. As you can see, this would need to be a sustained and escalating effort.
As one may imagine, a concept like this comes with a lot of controversy. Like treating a fever with aspirin, this type of engineering only treats the symptoms, it does not fix the root cause of the warming: Escalating levels of heat trapping greenhouse gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels.
The American Meteorological Society (AMS) expressed concerns that the possibility of seemingly quick and inexpensive fixes will distract the public and policymakers from addressing the underlying problems and developing adaptation strategies. And if for whatever reason the aerosol missions stopped, within a few years the temperatures would shoot up at breakneck pace. A pace that would likely be too fast for humanity to adjust.
The AMS official policy statement regarding this type of geoengineering begins with a warning, “Reflecting sunlight would likely reduce Earth’s average temperature but could also change global circulation patterns with potentially serious consequences such as changing storm tracks and precipitation patterns.”
In other words, the atmosphere is complex. Any band-aid fix is bound to have unintended consequences and possibly cause a new set of problems. The AMS goes on to say results of reflecting sunlight “would almost certainly not be the same for all nations and peoples, thus raising legal, ethical, diplomatic and national security concerns.” One region may become a desert, while others become flooded out.
And if we learn to control SAI to tailor a favorable result, there’s the concern it may be used for the disproportionate benefit of one nation over another. In a 2017 study in the publication Nature Communications, the authors warn their work “… reemphasizes the perils of unilateral geoengineering, which might prove attractive to individual actors due to a greater controllability of local climate responses, but with inherent additional risk elsewhere.”
But perhaps the greatest reason to be skeptical of aerosol solar sunlight management is that it’s not a silver bullet. As carbon dioxide continues to increase, the oceans are becoming increasingly acidic. According to NOAA, ocean acidification can cascade through the ocean food chain, reducing the ability of shell fish and reef-building corals to produce their skeletons. Injecting aerosols into the stratosphere simply limits sunshine, it does not tackle the underlying carbon dioxide build up. The ocean would continue to acidify.
Despite the potential drawbacks, the AMS does recognize – even with aggressive mitigation – we can’t avoid some dangerous consequences of climate changealready baked into the system. Plus, the scale of human adaptation is limited. Therefore, they urge caution and continued research.
The AMS policy statement closes with: “Geoengineering will not substitute for either aggressive mitigation or proactive adaptation, but it could contribute to a comprehensive risk management strategy to slow climate change and alleviate some of its negative impacts. The potential to help society cope with climate change and the risks of adverse consequences imply a need for adequate research, appropriate regulation and transparent deliberation.”

 

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