EARTHQUAKES: Hazard Associated with Deep Well Injection – Report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1951/report.pdf

Earthquake Hazard Associated
With Deep Well InjectionA Report to the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency
By CRAIG NICHOLSON and ROBERT L. WESSON
Prepared in cooperation with the
Environmental Protection Agency
Under certain circumstances, the increased pore pressure
resulting from fluid injection, whether for waste disposal,
secondary recovery, geothermal energy, or solution mining,
can trigger earthquakes. This report discusses known cases
of injection-induced seismicity and how and why earthquakes
may be triggered, as well as conditions under which the
triggering is most likely to occur. Criteria are established
to assist in regulating well operations so as to minimize
the seismic hazard associated with deep well fluid injection
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 1951

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